Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West Englandwith a population of 2, Greater Manchester was created on 1 April as a result of the Local Government Act ; and designated a city region on 1 April It is landlocked and borders Cheshire to the south-west and southDerbyshire to the south-eastWest Yorkshire to the north-eastLancashire to the north and Merseyside to the west.
There is a mix of high-density urban areas, suburbs, semi-rural and rural locations in Greater Manchester, but land use is mostly urban—the product concentric urbanisation and industrialisation which occurred mostly during the 19th century when the region flourished as the global centre of the cotton industry.
It has a focused central business district, formed by Manchester city centre and the adjoining parts of Salford and Traffordbut Greater Manchester is also a polycentric county with ten metropolitan districts, each of which has at least one major town centre and outlying suburbs. Greater Manchester is governed by the Greater Manchester Combined Authority GMCAwhich consists of the leaders of the ten metropolitan borough councils, plus a directly elected mayor, with responsibility for economic development, regeneration and transport.
Andy Burnham is the inaugural Mayor of Greater Manchesterhaving been elected in Prior to the establishment of the combined authority in Manchester borough boundaries in dating, the county had various governance arrangements.
For the 12 years following
Manchester borough boundaries in dating county had a two-tier system of local government; district councils shared power with the Greater Manchester County Council. The county council was abolished inand so its districts the metropolitan boroughs effectively became unitary authority areas.
However, the metropolitan county continued to exist in law Manchester borough boundaries in dating as a geographic frame of reference,  and as a ceremonial countywith a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff. Greater Manchester is an Manchester borough boundaries in dating of 70 former local government districts from the former administrative counties of Lancashire, Cheshire, the West Riding of Yorkshire and eight independent county boroughs.
Although the modern county of Greater Manchester was not created untilthe history of its constituent settlements goes back centuries. There is evidence of Iron Age habitation, particularly at Mellor and Celtic activity in a settlement named Chochionbelieved to have been an area of Wigan settled by the Brigantes. Much of the region was omitted from the Domesday Book of ; Redhead states that this was because only a partial survey was taken, rather than sparsity of population.
During the Middle Agesmuch of what became Greater Manchester lay within the hundred of Salfordshire — an ancient division of the county of Lancashire.
Salfordshire encompassed several parishes and townshipssome
Manchester borough boundaries in dating which, like Rochdalewere important towns and centres of England's woollen trade. The development of what became Greater Manchester is attributed to a shared tradition of domestic flannel and fustian cloth production, which encouraged a system of cross-regional trade.
In the 18th century, German traders had coined the name Manchesterthum to cover the region in and around Manchester. One of its first known recorded uses was in a report put forward in response to what was considered to have been the successful creation of the County of Manchester borough boundaries in dating in Most of Greater Manchester lay within the ancient county boundaries of Lancashire; those areas south of the Mersey and Tame were in Cheshire.
The Saddleworth area and a small part of Mossley are historically part of Yorkshire and in the south-east a small part in Derbyshire. The areas that were incorporated into Greater Manchester in previously formed parts of the administrative counties of Cheshire, Lancashire, the West Riding of Yorkshire and of eight independent county boroughs. It reported on the "increasing demands Manchester borough boundaries in dating the exploration of the possibilities of a greater merger of public services throughout Manchester and the surrounding municipalities".
The Mayor of Salford pledged his support to the idea, stating that he looked forward to the day when "there would be a merging of the essential services of Manchester, Salford, and the surrounding districts constituting Greater Manchester.
The Local Government Act designated the south east Lancashire area which, despite its name, included part of north
Manchester borough boundaries in dating Cheshirea Special Review Area. The Local Government Commission for England presented draft recommendations, in Decemberproposing a new county based on the conurbation surrounding and including Manchester, with nine most-purpose Manchester borough boundaries in dating corresponding to the modern Greater Manchester boroughs excluding Wigan.
The review was abolished in favour of the Royal Commission on Local Government before issuing a final Manchester borough boundaries in dating. The Royal Commission's report, known as the Redcliffe-Maud Report, Manchester borough boundaries in dating the removal of much of the then existing system of local government. The commission described the system of administering urban and rural districts separately outdated, noting that urban areas provided employment and services for rural dwellers, and open countryside was used by town Manchester borough boundaries in dating for recreation.
The commission considered interdependence of areas at many levels, including travel-to-work, provision of services, and which local newspapers were read, before proposing a new administrative metropolitan area. One of its main characteristics is the marked individuality of its towns, Following the Transport Actin the SELNEC Passenger Transport Executive an authority to co-ordinate and operate public transport in the region was set up, covering an area smaller than the proposed Selnec, and different
Manchester borough boundaries in dating to the eventual Greater Manchester.
It excluded Wigan, which was in both the Redcliffe-Maud area and in the eventual Greater Manchester but had not been part of the act's review area. Redcliffe-Maud's recommendations were accepted by the Labour-controlled government in February The new government's proposal was much smaller than the Redcliffe-Maud Report's Selnec, with areas such as Winsford, Northwich, Knutsford, Macclesfield and Glossop retained by their original counties to ensure their county councils had enough revenue to remain competitive Cheshire County Council would have ceased to exist.
Manchester borough boundaries in dating Rochdale were originally planned to form a single district dubbed "Botchdale" by local MP Michael Fidler   but were divided into separate boroughs.
To re-balance the districts, the borough of Rochdale took Middleton from Oldham. The Local Government Act reformed local government in England by creating a system of two-tier metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties and districts throughout the country.
By Januarya joint working party representing Greater Manchester had drawn up its county Structure Planready for implementation by the Greater Manchester County Council.
The plan set out objectives for the forthcoming metropolitan county. Because of political objection, particularly from Cheshire, Greater Manchester covered only the inner, urban 62 of the 90 former districts that the Royal Commission had outlined as an effective administrative metropolitan area. Unlike the other counties Manchester borough boundaries in dating by the Act, Greater Manchester was never adopted as a postal county by the Royal Mail.
A review in noted that "Greater Manchester" would be unlikely to be adopted because of confusion with the Manchester post town. A decade after they were established, the mostly Labour Manchester borough boundaries in dating metropolitan county councils and the Greater London Council GLC had several high-profile clashes with the Conservative government of Margaret Thatcherwith regards overspending and high rates charging.
Government policy on the issue was considered throughoutand the Conservative Party put a "promise to scrap the metropolitan county councils" and the GLC, in their manifesto for the general election.
That the metropolitan county councils were controlled by the Labour Party led to accusations that their abolition was motivated by party politics: Inthe people of Greater London voted in a referendum in favour of establishing a new Greater London Authoritywith mayor and an elected chamber for the county. In JulyThe Treasury published its Manchester borough boundaries in dating of sub-national economic development Manchester borough boundaries in dating regenerationwhich stated that the government would allow those city regions that wished to work together to form a statutory framework for city regional activity, including powers over Manchester borough boundaries in dating, skills, planning and economic development.
Following a bid from AGMA highlighting the potential benefits in combatting the lates financial crisisit was announced in the United Kingdom Budget that Greater Manchester and the Leeds City Region would be awarded Statutory City Region Pilot status, allowing if they desired for their constituent district councils to pool resources and become statutory Combined Authorities with powers comparable to the Greater London Authority. On 31 March the Communities Secretary John Denham approved the constitution and launched a week public consultation on the draft bill together with the approved constitution.
On 3 NovemberGeorge Osbornethe Chancellor of the Manchester borough boundaries in dating that there would be an eleventh member of the GMCA — a directly elected Mayor of Greater Manchesterwith "powers over transport, housing, planning and policing" from Several coalfields mainly sandstones and shales lie Manchester borough boundaries in dating the west of the county
Manchester borough boundaries in dating the Cheshire Plain fringes the south.
Greater Manchester is characterised by dense urban and industrial development, which includes centres of commerce, finance, retail Manchester borough boundaries in dating administration, as well as commuter suburbs and housing, interspersed with transport infrastructure such as light rail, roads and motorway, and canals. Init had an estimated population of 2, making it the second most Manchester borough boundaries in dating built-up area in the UKManchester borough boundaries in dating occupied an area of Greater Manchester experiences a temperate maritime climatelike most of the British Isleswith relatively cool summers and mild winters.
The county's average annual rainfall is Snowfall is not common in the built
Manchester borough boundaries in dating areas because of the urban warming effect but the West Pennine Moors in the northwest, South Pennines in the northeast and Peak District in the east receive more snow, and roads leading out of the county can be closed due to heavy snowfall.
Contrary to its reputation for urban sprawl  Greater Manchester has green belt see section belowconstraining urban driftand a "wide and varied
Manchester borough boundaries in dating of wildlife and natural habitats. Cloversorrelnettle and thistle are common, and grow wild in Greater Manchester. Common Manchester borough boundaries in dating Eriophorum angustifoliuma plant with fluffy white plumes native to wet hollows on high moors, was
Manchester borough boundaries in dating as the county flower of Greater Manchester.
Greater Manchester contains green belt interspersed throughout the county, surrounding the urban core in places, and expanding towards its borders, as a central component of the North West Green Belt.
It was first drawn up from the s. All the county's districts contain some portion of belt. It was established on 1 April as a pilot combined authorityunique to local government in the United Kingdom. The authority
Manchester borough boundaries in dating most of its powers from the Local Government Act and Local Democracy, Economic Development and Construction Act and replaced a range of single-purpose joint boards and quangos into provide a formal administrative authority for Greater Manchester Manchester borough boundaries in dating powers over public transport, skills, housing, regeneration, waste management, carbon neutrality and planning permission.
These district councils have the greatest powers over public services, and control matters such as council taxeducation provision, social housing, libraries and healthcare. Eight of the ten metropolitan boroughs were named after the eight former county boroughs that now compose the largest centres of population and greater historical and political prominence.
These boroughs are and Traffordcentred on Ashton-under-Lyne and Stretfordrespectively, and are named with reference to geographical and historical origins. Inalong with the five other metropolitan county councils and the Greater Councilthe Greater Manchester County Council was abolished, and most of its powers were devolved to the boroughs.
Although used as a "successful brand",  Greater Manchester's politics have been characterised by "entrenched localism and related rivalries", historically resistant to regionalism. These joint boards are made up of councillors appointed from each of the ten boroughs except the Waste Disposal Authority, which does not include the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan.
Greater Manchester Police was formerly overseen by a joint police authoritybut is now overseen by the Greater Manchester Police and Commissioner owing to reforms introduced in Greater Manchester is a ceremonial county with its own Lord-Lieutenant who is the personal representative of the monarch. Most of Manchester borough boundaries in dating Manchester is controlled by the Labour party, and is generally considered a Labour stronghold.
Greater Manchester has a population of 2, mid estimate making it the third most populous county in England after Greater London and the West Midlands and the highest ever for the county.
The demonym of Greater Manchester is "Greater Mancunian". Greater Manchester is home to a diverse population and is a multicultural agglomeration with an ethnic minority population comprising 8. This is similar to the rest of the country, although the proportions of Muslims and Jews are nearly Manchester borough boundaries in dating the national average.
Following the deindustrialisation of Greater Manchester in the midth century, there was a significant economic and population decline in the region, Manchester borough boundaries in dating in Manchester and Salford.
Greater Manchester's housing stock comprises a variety of types. Manchester city centre is noted for its high-rise apartments,  while Salford has some of the tallest and most densely populated tower block estates in Europe.
House prices and labour markets differ in Greater Manchester between north and south,   such that in the s, the Housing Market Renewal Initiative identified ManchesterSalford, Rochdale and Oldham as areas with terraced housing unsuited to modern needs. Greater Manchester has five universities: Together with the Royal Northern College of Music they had a combined population of students ofin — the third highest number in England behind Greater Londonand the West Midlands,  and the thirteenth highest in England per head of population.
As offurther education in Greater Manchester is co-ordinated by the Greater Manchester Colleges Group, a joint venture composed of an association of 24 colleges in the region.
Much of Greater Manchester's wealth was generated during the Industrial Revolution, particularly textile manufacture. An Association for Industrial Archaeology publication describes Greater Manchester as "one of the classic areas of industrial and urban growth in Britain, the result of a combination of forces that came together in the 18th and 19th centuries: Considerable industrial restructuring has helped the region to recover from deindustrialisation and the demise of the mass production of textiles.
Rochdale and Manchester are connected to the history of the cooperative movement ; the Rochdale Society of Equitable Pioneers an early consumer co-operative was founded in Rochdale in and The Co-operative Groupthe UK's largest mutual business and North West England's biggest company,  is headquartered at One Angel Square in central Manchester.
In a poll of British business leaders published inManchester was regarded as the best place Manchester borough boundaries in dating the UK to locate a business. At the UK census, there were 1, residents of Greater Manchester aged 16 to The economic activity of these was The figures follow the national trend, although the percentage of self-employed people is below the national average of 8.
This was roughly in line with national figures, except for the proportion of jobs in agriculture which is only about a third of the national average of
Manchester borough boundaries in dating. GMPTE's purpose to secure the provision of a completely integrated Manchester borough boundaries in dating efficient system of passenger transport for Greater Manchester on behalf of the county council.
Greater Manchester lies at the heart the North West transport network. Much of the infrastructure converges at Manchester city centre with the Manchester Inner Ring Roadan amalgamation of several major roads, circulating the city centre. The county is Manchester borough boundaries in dating only place in the UK to have a fully orbital motorway the M60which passes through all of the boroughs except Bolton and Wigan.
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