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Once upon a time s01e18 online dating Emma and Regina The outrage against Jason Rothenberg and his show was triggered by the death of the female character Lexa, a young Commander of several clans in a post-apocalyptic world, and most beloved among fans.
Warrior leader Lexa does not die heroically on the battle field, but rather succumbs to a fatal gunshot wound contracted after she finds herself in the wrong place at the wrong time. Thewhich was initially praised for
Once upon a time s01e18 online dating progressive depiction of same-gender relationships, is now being accused of queerbaiting, a strategy Once upon a time s01e18 online dating aims to profit off queer viewership2 while simultaneously still appealing to conservative viewers.
Due to the conservative and controversial notion that sexual and romantic attraction between men and women is the natural default, known as heteronormativity, relationships portrayed on TV are written with an assumed heterosexual audience in mind. In a media landscape shaped by this, people whose experiences Once upon a time s01e18 online dating feelings deviate from this alleged norm will struggle to find characters whose experiences align with their own.
Thus, queer people lack a meaningful representation, as they seek a narrative that they can relate to or identify with. However, given that women and men face very different obstacles within society, the ideals imposed on queer women and queer men through heteronormative structures are very different as well.
As Adrienne Rich maintains: Because of this, the two types of queerbaiting call to be approached individually. Therefore, in this thesis I have elected to focus on a case of queerbaiting that involves a pair of women: Here live a plethora of people who used to be characters from different stories and fairytales, but have been cursed by an Evil Queen to lead their lives in our world; for example, Snow White now teaches English and occasionally goes on a date with Frankenstein in a diner kept Once upon a time s01e18 online dating Little Red Riding Hood and her grandmother.
The breaking of the curse, however, triggers a sequence of new problems that the characters have to face. In the process of dealing with these events, the characters travel to other story realms, engage with magic, and seek to defeat evil. While their many confrontations often come with a subtext of sexual tension, later on, the depiction of their complicated relationship, which always remains a central Once upon a time s01e18 online dating of the show, is consistently interspersed with cues suggesting romance and family bonds.
However, the portrayal of their relationship always remains ambiguous, allowing for diverging interpretations. In this thesis, it will be discussed how queerbaiting is implemented in Once Upon A Time, and in how far the use of this strategy influences the lives of queer women in
Once upon a time s01e18 online dating of in- visibility, Once upon a time s01e18 online dating standing, and sense of self. The second chapter of the present paper introduces the meaning of terms such as heteronormativity, representation, and queerbaiting, and how these concepts affect society.
The first subset focuses on how, over the course of the first season, these characters are positioned within their dynamic, and how the target audience is aware of the potential queer relationship between the two women.
last subsection concentrates on the imagery of romance established by Once Upon A Time itself, and how it is reflected in Once upon a time s01e18 online dating relationship between Emma and Regina. Using the results from the analysis, chapter four discusses how the practice of queerbaiting in Once Upon A Time reinforces and perpetuates heteronormativity.
The concept is tied to the controversial notion Once upon a time s01e18 online dating heterosexuality functions as the default and prevalent sexual orientation people living in what is considered civilized society3.
In it, Rich discusses the connection between patriarchic structures and the oppression of 3Gender and sexual orientation are often used as a means of othering, for example by indicating that cultures that allow for a plurality of gender or sexual orientation are un-civilized, alien, or outright barbaric. According to Rich, the compulsion of heterosexuality is institutionalized to ensure male power. If the societal awareness of the existence of homosexuality is lowered, so is the likelihood of individual women becoming aware of the possibility to identify as anything other than heterosexual themselves.
This, in turn, aids the preservation of a lifestyle that men can control. Rich works with characteristics of male power established by Kathleen Gough, and explicates how these are manifested in a multitude of ways In Once Upon A Time, this is also reflected: It does not, however, discuss at length the moral implications and institutional consequences of heteronormativity.
The exact of that line is constantly renegotiated, which allows for certain aspects to cross the border from bad to good and vice versa, whereas others always remain viewed the same way. However, Rubin does point out that demands that all sex shall be amongst other things heterosexual are backed by a more considerable amount of coercive power and bureaucratic regulation than those that insist otherwise 15, A more recent definition of heteronormativity is provided by political theorists Javier Corrales and Mario Pecheny in Heteronormativity imposes on individuals the expectation of having sexual and affective partnerships with members of the opposite sex, raising children in heterosexual environments, and performing gender-based roles that align with traditional binary or majoritarian definitions.
Additionally, while the permission for same-gender couples to get legally married is arguably the achievement that is given the greatest media attention, it does by no means imply full legal equality — for example, laws against discrimination in the workplace based on sexual orientation are considered independently from marriage law.
The notions incorporated in this system often favor patriarchy and further male power. The Once upon a time s01e18 online dating of heteronormativity is maintained in a multitude of ways, one of which lies in Once upon a time s01e18 online dating focus of this paper and concerns the depiction or lack thereof of queer people on television. The relevance of positive representation of queer people on television is not solely a matter of individuals seeking to relate to characters whose experiences are similar to their own.
In an article published inMarina Levina, Craig R. Waldo, and Louise F. Fitzgerald examine how visual media affect the attitudes of heterosexual consumers towards queer men Once upon a time s01e18 online dating women and present a study on the topic.
In the context of their research on this topic, the authors link this influence on public opinion to the concept of the spiral of silence, aptly summarized in the article as follows: The spiral of silence refers to a phenomenon in which an individual perceives a particular viewpoint on an issue to be the dominant one in society, and thus becomes reluctant to express opposing opinions out of fear of isolation from the majority.
In the face of this silence, society then assumes that there is no opposition to the prevalent view and continues to accept it as the norm.
As a result, those in disagreement have even greater incentive to remain quiet. This creates an environment in which individuals who do not identify as Once upon a time s01e18 online dating are less likely to openly admit to this, which leads to the wide- spread assumption that
Once upon a time s01e18 online dating is indeed the norm, thus reinforcing it as the dominant point of view.
If compulsory heterosexuality is enforced by pervasive cultural practices and discoveries, all members of society are subjected to it, including people who are not heterosexual.
In order to embrace their sexual orientation, then, queer people must first recognize that there is, in fact, an option beyond heterosexuality, and reject the societal default in Once upon a time s01e18 online dating process.
A positive queer representation on television would suggest an alternative to heterosexuality and aid this process of self-identification, therefore contributing to the dismantlement of heteronormativity. The issue of representation is also breached in the reference guide Television Studies: The Key Concepts, in which its authors devote one chapter to this topic. The authors link the politics of representation to power and ideology, and give an example of this: Significantly, the way reality is perceived by heterosexuals is in itself shaped by the way the world is represented to them.
Casey and his colleagues note: We classify the world and then communicate these classifications to each other. In so doing, we make and re-make the world through its representation, sometimes with serious consequences for those who are without a voice in Once upon a time s01e18 online dating process.
Thus, the underrepresentation of queer people in media is both indicative of and causally related to the system that oppresses them.
However, it also proves difficult to come by a final and all-compassing definition of it, as the limitations of the concept are still being negotiated by the community. Points of discussion include questions such as: Although neither explanation has been confirmed by a reliable source, it is entirely possible that the word was used in either or both scenarios.
The concept Once upon a time s01e18 online dating Once upon a time s01e18 online dating out queer people, however, fits the use of the word today. To put it in slightly broader terms, it is something that is purposefully done by content creators in order to suggest romance by the means of subtext, with the goal of enticing a queer audience with the promise of representation, and without any intention of making these insinuations explicit.
Because a TV show is an ongoing economic venture, it is a creative endeavor as well as it is a product that needs to be sold and kept profitable over time. While some decisions regarding content are made Once upon a time s01e18 online dating the sake of art, a lot of decisions must be made with the promotion or selling of its product in mind; thus, a practice that is concerned with attracting a certain target audience is a marketing strategy. This applies for queerbaiting as well.
Of course, the use of this strategy is not limited to the television industry, but can include any type of fiction that depends on the appreciation of a large audience, as for example Once upon a time s01e18 online dating franchises.
This makes the aforementioned accusations of queerbaiting posed towards Jason Rothenberg a topic of great dispute. Therefore, as suggested by some, show runners were not baiting queer people out of financial motivations, but either acknowledging them within their then limited range possibilities, or unaware of what they were doing altogether.
It derives from one way these pairings are commonly designated in fandom, for instance: It is possible that this is what leads to the side-phenomenon that often coincides Once upon a time s01e18 online dating queerbaiting: In order to deflect accusations of queerbaiting or homophobia, creators include canonically queer characters who often only feature episodically, are reduced to stereotypes, or whose storylines are minor if existent at all.
This is true for a number of franchises, including but not limited to: Once Upon A Time engages in this particular strategy as
Once upon a time s01e18 online dating Ruby, Dorothy, and Mulan, all of which only feature sporadically, are of less narrative importance than those whose interactions are layered with subtext for the sake of queerbaiting — main characters Emma and Once upon a time s01e18 online dating. Their relationship is laced with conflicts that provoke questions such as: Who has the upper hand in struggle for power?
Who wins the affection of Sherriff Graham Humbert? Their passionate disagreements are also not seldom presented with an undercurrent of sexual tension: A strong imagery used to add sexual undertones to their interactions lies in the repeated portrayal of Regina offering Emma apples in some form. This can be read as a reference to the fairytale of Snow White, who
Once upon a time s01e18 online dating poisoned by an apple the Evil Queen prepares for her. However, it is equally reminiscent of the biblical narration of Eve offering the fruit of the forbidden tree of knowledge — in Christian
Once upon a time s01e18 online dating typically assumed to be an apple — to Adam, seducing him.
This connection is underscored when Regina is shown turning a poisoned apple in her hand, wondering aloud: Thus, the use of apples as props in scenes centering on Regina and Emma is tied to the suggestion that there is an underlying sexual attraction between them, and at the same time mark this transgression as a lethal deviation from the normalized heterosexual desire.
She carries a basket of apples, and initiates a conversation with Emma.
Regina encodes her intentions in a talk about the assets of the honey-crisp apple tree. Emma, meanwhile, is shown wearing nothing but her underwear and a white tank top, holding a mug in one hand and casually holding open the door with the other. She takes the proffered fruit. In a later scene, in which Emma talks to Henry, the apple re-appears. Just as she is about to bite into it, Henry harshly interrupts her to ask where she got it from. When she tells him that Regina gave it to Once upon a time s01e18 online dating, he snatches it up and throws it away, scolding her: When Emma tells Regina that her Once upon a time s01e18 online dating threats are only strengthening her resolve to stay in town, Regina responds by asking: To this, Emma replies: This is intercut with close ups of Emma, which display her as more provoked than intimidated.
The scene is accompanied by lingering string music in the background, which creates a suspenseful atmosphere, indicating that the situation is moving towards a climax. As Emma refuses to give in, Regina invades her personal space and warns her: Regina even accompanies her final statement with a slight smile.
Furthermore, the soft lighting, favoring warmer colors such as yellow and red, displays their faces with little contrast, which makes the scene seem less menacing and more intimate. However, her open, casual stance and the easy demeanor with which she faces Regina negate the idea of her appearance being a show of vulnerability.